US GM food toxins found in the blood of 93% of unborn babies

Toxins from genetically modified crops are finding their way into over 9 in every ten babies new research reveals.  Read this UK news story for more:-

US GM food toxins found in the blood of 93% of unborn babies – UK’s Daily Mail national newspaper – By Sean Poulter 20th May 2011

Read the full paper here:-

Maternal and fetal exposure to pesticides associated to genetically modified foods in Eastern Townships of Quebec, Canada

A. Aris, S.Leblanc Journal of ReproductiveToxicology xxx (2011) xxx–xxx

Here is the abstract:-

Reprod Toxicol. 2011 Feb 18. [Epub ahead of print]

Maternal and fetal exposure to pesticides associated to genetically modified foods in Eastern Townships of Quebec, Canada.

Source

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Sherbrooke Hospital Centre, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada; Clinical Research Centre of Sherbrooke University Hospital Centre, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada; Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada.

Abstract

Pesticides associated to genetically modified foods (PAGMF), are engineered to tolerate herbicides such as glyphosate (GLYP) and gluphosinate (GLUF) or insecticides such as the bacterial toxin bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between maternal and fetal exposure, and to determine exposure levels of GLYP and its metabolite aminomethyl phosphoric acid (AMPA), GLUF and its metabolite 3-methylphosphinicopropionic acid (3-MPPA) and Cry1Ab protein (a Bt toxin) in Eastern Townships of Quebec, Canada. Blood of thirty pregnant women (PW) and thirty-nine nonpregnant women (NPW) were studied. Serum GLYP and GLUF were detected in NPW and not detected in PW. Serum 3-MPPA and CryAb1 toxin were detected in PW, their fetuses and NPW. This is the first study to reveal the presence of circulating PAGMF in women with and without pregnancy, paving the way for a new field in reproductive toxicology including nutrition and utero-placental toxicities.

Scientists and Drug Companies Scheme to Avoid FDA Scrutiny and Exploit US Vaccine Programme Immunity Against the Public Interest

From Age of Autism

Just eight days after the Supreme Court of the United States ruling granting vaccine manufacturers virtual immunity over prosecution ( Bruesewitz v. Wyeth) , scientists and company representatives met at a congress in Baltimore to “Understand the Changes in the National Vaccine Plan to Maximize Government Sponsored Funding and Avoid FDA Scrutiny”. The “workshop” which took place on 2 March 2011 was the first event in a Vaccine Business Congress held under the auspices of the Institute for International Research USA . Amongst the many participants at the congress were representatives of Merck, GlaxoSmithKline, Sanofi Pasteur, Roche, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the Wellcome Trust, and the National Cancer Institute (NIH) (IIRUSA Welcome , IIRUSA Agenda ).

Despite frequent bleating from industry apologists that vaccine manufacturers do not make money the pre publicity for the event showed the industry in rampant mood. The on-line brochure states:

“VACCINES are the continuing success story, earning over $27 billion in 2009 alone, despite difficult economic times for the pharmaceutical industry. By 2012, vaccines are expected to bring in more than $35 billion in revenue.”

The brochure demonstrates the utter negligence of the US Congress, administration and courts in leaving its citizenry subjected and exposed to an industry, forced to inject its products by mandate into their children, forced to pay for them through taxation and finally to do so without any sanction against manufacturers should damage occur. Is it any surprise then that instead of regarding the manufacture of safe and effective products as a solemn ethical duty, they just turn round and brazenly discuss how to milk the contemptible system to the uttermost? Please send this article to your Congressmen and women, and ask them what they intend to do about it.

With thanks to Hilary Butler and others.

John Stone is UK Editor for Age of Autism.

Fox News – US Pays $ Millions In Secret To Vaccine-Caused-Autism Injured Kids

See below video of a Fox News exclusive report yesterday announcing the publication today of a new peer reviewed study containing powerful evidence that not only do vaccines cause autistic conditions but the US government has been paying out multi-million dollar settlements to the few children and their families lucky enough to have been able to prove their cases.  But unlucky enough to have had their family life and child’s life destroyed by vaccines.  STOP PRESS @16:39 BST: The paper just published can be downloaded here:  Unanswered Questions from the Vaccine Injury Compensation Program: A Review of Compensated Cases of Vaccine-Induced Brain Injury, by Mary Holland, Louis Conte, Robert Krakow, and Lisa Colin

Fox reports that a Congressional Investigation is being called for.

ROBERT MACNEIL:  Autism now affects more American children than childhood cancer, diabetes and AIDS combined. In the last decade, the numbers of children diagnosed on the autism spectrum have risen rapidly. The Centers for Disease Control now puts the rate at one in 110. Amazing US News Report – Part II – US Reporter Bob MacNeil – Autism more serious for US children than cancer, diabetes and AIDS combined

The official rate for autism in the USA at 1 in 110 children [4 in 5 being a boy] vastly outstrips the hazards of infectious diseases, yet the US government and health officials worldwide continue to cover up this scandal whilst the US medical professions, American Medical Association and American Academy of Pediatrics continue to get rich from the dollars charged to parents without warning this could take their child’s life and health away forever by giving upwards of 50 vaccines to their children in infancy.  The safety of multiple vaccines has never been studied and adverse vaccine reactions are known to be highly under reported.

It is bizarrely illegal in the USA for US parents to sue drug companies for injury to their child caused by vaccines.  US Government’s health officials deny any causal link but US tax dollars are still paid out in secret multi-million dollar settlements to parents and their injured children.  Parents are told if they talk their child could lose the compensation. 

The first case to be made public was that of Hannah Poling.  Hannah’s case was broken in February 2008 when the details were leaked to and published by US award winning New York journalist and author David Kirby.  The story was one of the top ten US news stories of 2008 and received coast to coast news coverage.

The new peer reviewed study will be published today May 10 [US time] when the Summer Edition of the PACE Environmental Law Review, is published and put online from the Pace Law School with its world-renowned environmental law faculty.

For more information by David Kirby on The Huffington Post today:
High Rates of Autism Found in Federal Vaccine Injury Program: Study Says More Answers Needed

Winter Vaccinations Increase Autism Risk – New Study From California

A new statistical study [full abstract below] from the School of Medicine at the University of California, Davis shows a potential and small association in time in at best 6% of cases between between the month a child is conceived in California and the risk of developing autism.  This could indicate that winter vaccinations increase the risk of a child in California developing an autistic condition [explained below]. 

Winter conception (December through March) was associated with no more than a 6% increased risk compared with summer  (OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.02-1.10): [Month of Conception and Risk of Autism Zerbo, Ousseny; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Delwiche, Lora; Walker, Cheryl; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva Epidemiology., POST AUTHOR CORRECTIONS, 3 May 2011 doi:  10.1097/EDE.0b013e31821d0b53].

These results support an hypothesis that children conceived in winter months are at greater risk of developing autistic conditions when vaccinated during winter months. 

The study authors conclude:

Conclusions: Higher risks for autism among those conceived in winter months suggest the presence of environmental causes of autism that vary by season.”

Winter conceptions result predominantly in winter vaccinations

Children conceived in winter in the USA [December to March] will receive two doses of the Hepatitis B vaccine predominantly in winter in the period August to January ie. from birth and during the following two months. [Download .pdf of US vaccine schedule].

These children will also receive another 7 vaccines predominantly during the winter months. Some of these are repeated up to 3 times.  This is in the period aged two to six months [ie. seven vaccines: RV, DTaP, Hib, PCV, IPV].  This corresponds to the months of October through May for prior winter conceptions.

These children will also receive another series of vaccines predominantly during the winter in the period August through April aged 12 to 18 months: HepB DTaP Hib IPV Varicella MMR PCV Influenza HepA (2 doses).

Irresponsible Headline Grabber UC Davis Medics

As at least 94% of autistic childrens’ conditions clearly have nothing whatsoever to do with the month of conception the greedy publicity seeking widely announced publication of such a paper is grossly medically and ethically irresponsible.  Will parents now seek only to conceive children during May to August, being misled by the headlines in the media?  What might be the social implications – lower rates of conceptions, strains in marriages, increased divorce rates, burdens on health professionals concentrated on birth “booms” at particular times of year?   With such a small effect it is impossible to conclude anything from such a study.  The fact the authors had to look in the records of seven million children is not a strength but a weakness.  This is a result of increasing the size of the sample population until the calculation a such small difference becames “statistically” significant when in smaller populations it may not be.  Statistical significance is not a basis upon which to decide whether there is a real-world cause and effect relationship.  

These kinds of observational statistical studies should be treated with great caution. They are at best used only to consider hypotheses for later research. They do not prove cause but only associations. They can never prove there is no causal association even if they do not find a statistical association. With such a small effect as this study – no more than 6%, whilst the statistician might calculate the results are statistically significant, other errors not accounted for may mean such a small result is of no significance. It is notable the authors did not set out provisos like these to the world’s media when this study was being publicised.

The authors from a medical school [and therefore not necessarily trained scientists] did not appear to investigate a correlation to month of vaccination, nor between northern and southern California births [seasonal temperature differences can be significant], nor between regressive autistic conditions [appearing after birth from around the time of vaccination at 12-18 months] and autistic conditions apparent from birth.

Abstract:

Month of Conception and Risk of Autism Zerbo, Ousseny; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Delwiche, Lora; Walker, Cheryl; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva Epidemiology., POST AUTHOR CORRECTIONS, 3 May 2011 doi:  10.1097/EDE.0b013e31821d0b53].

Background: Studies of season of birth or season of conception can provide clues about etiology. We investigated whether certain months or seasons of conception are associated with increased risk of autism spectrum disorders, for which etiology is particularly obscure.

Methods: The study population comprises 6,604,975 children born from 1990 to 2002 in California. Autism cases (n = 19,238) were identified from 1990 through 2008 in databases of the California Department of Developmental Services, which coordinates services for people with developmental disorders. The outcome in this analysis was autism diagnosed before the child’s sixth birth date. The main independent variables were month of conception and season of conception (winter, spring, summer, and fall). Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for autism by month of conception.

Results: Children conceived in December (OR = 1.09 [95% CI = 1.02-1.17]), January (1.08 [1.00-1.17]), February (1.12 [1.04-1.20]), or March (1.16 [1.08-1.24]) had higher risk of developing autism compared with those conceived in July. Conception in the winter season (December, January, and February) was associated with a 6% (OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.02-1.10) increased risk compared with summer.

Conclusions: Higher risks for autism among those conceived in winter months suggest the presence of environmental causes of autism that vary by season.

Vaccines Associated With High Infant Mortality Rates in Developed Nations

News Release For Immediate Release

Developed nations that require the most vaccines for babies tend to have the highest infant death rates

May 4, 2011 — A new study, published in Human and Experimental Toxicology, a prestigious journal indexed by the National Library of Medicine, found that developed nations with higher (worse) infant mortality rates tend to give their infants more vaccine doses. For example, the United States requires infants to receive 26 vaccines (the most in the world) yet more than 6 U.S. infants die per every 1000 live births. In contrast, Sweden and Japan administer 12 vaccines to infants, the least amount, and report less than 3 deaths per 1000 live births.

The current study by Miller and Goldman, “Infant Mortality Rates Regressed Against Number of Vaccine Doses Routinely Given: Is There a Biochemical or Synergistic Toxicity?” (and .pdf available online here), found “a high statistically significant correlation between increasing number of vaccine doses and increasing infant mortality rates.” This raises an important question: Would fewer vaccines administered to infants reduce the number of infant deaths? The authors concluded that “closer inspection of correlations between vaccine doses, biochemical or synergistic toxicity, and infant mortality rates, is essential. All nations — rich and poor, advanced and developing — have an obligation to determine whether their immunization schedules are achieving their desired goals.”

Other study findings:

  • The United States spends more per capita on healthcare than any other country yet 33 nations have better infant mortality rates.
  • Some infant deaths attributed to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) may be vaccine-related, perhaps due to over-vaccination.
  • Progress on reducing infant deaths should include monitoring immunization schedules and official causes of death (to determine if vaccine-related infant deaths are being reclassified).Infant mortality rates will remain high in developing nations that cannot provide clean water, proper nutrition, improved sanitation, and better access to health care.

______________________________________________________

Download the entire study here . (http://het.sagepub.com/content/early/2011/05/04/0960327111407644)
Hum Exp Toxicol published online 4 May 2011. DOI: 10.1177/0960327111407644

The study’s authors can be contacted as follows: Neil Z. Miller: neilzmiller@gmail.com and
Gary S. Goldman: pearblossominc@aol.com

______________________________________________________________________________

Funding Acknowledgment: This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. Open Access: The National Vaccine Information Center (NVIC) donated $2500 and Michael Belkin donated $500 (in memory of his daughter, Lyla) for open access to the journal article making it freely available to all researchers.

US Government & Scientists Agree: More Vaccine-Caused-Autism Research Necessary

By David Kirby April 26, 2011  – [reposted from award winning journalist & author David Kirby's website - Animal Factory: Government and Many Scientists Agree: Vaccine-Autism Research Should Continue]

The vaccine-autism debate is far from over. If anything, it is just getting started.

As the following comments, funding decisions, research priorites and published papers suggest, the US government and many scientists will be researching and discussing this topic for years to come. Here are some reasons why:

I) FEDERAL HEALTH AGENCIES ENDORSE MORE RESEARCH

The federal government’s four leading health entitites dealing with vaccines and/or autism have all reached consensus: More vaccine safety research is required to fill gaps in knowledge, especially in the context of susceptible subpopulations, mitochondrial impairment, long-tern effects of vaccine-induced fever, seizures and brain injury, and other factors. Millions of dollars will be spent investigating these factors, and not because health officials somehow caved to parental pressure. Mercury in vaccines, for example, was designated as one of the CDC’s “high priority” vaccine safety issues, following an “extensive review of the literature, based on how strongly they seemed to be associated with ASD.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Office of Immunization Saftey

The CDC will study autism “as a possible clinical outcome of immunization” as part of its 5-year research plan. It will also study mitochondrial dysfunction and the risk for “post-vaccine neurological deterioration,” and will convene an expert panel on the feasibility of studying health outcomes, including autism, among vaccinated and unvaccinated children.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Study to Explore Early Development - NOTE – THIS WEBPAGE WAS RECENTLY ALTERED BY CDC TO REMOVE ALL REFERENCES TO VACCINES AND MERCURY – HERE IS THE ARCHIVED PAGE:

http://replay.web.archive.org/20080308214934/http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/dd/documents/SEEDfaqs.pdf

The CDC is currently looking at environmental, genetic and socioeconomic risk factors for ASD, including vaccines and mercury.

We chose to look at vaccines and other types of medical procedures that may have mercury exposure,” the CDC says. The agency “designated these factors as high priority” following “an extensive review of the literature, based on how strongly they seemed to be associated with ASD.”

Selected mercury exposures include

vaccines that the mom received during pregnancy, the child’s vaccine exposures after birth and specific other factors such as RhoGAM treatment in pregnancy if the mom has developed an immune response against the fetus that can harm it.”

Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee (IACC) - Includes CDC, HHS, NIH etc.

The nation’s leading autism research entity, the IACC, recently announced funding for studies of environmental factors for ASD, such as toxic exposures and

adverse events following immunization (such as fever and seizures), and mitochondrial impairment.”

It will also fund studies to determine if some subpopulations are

more susceptible to environmental exposures (e.g., immune challenges related to infections, vaccinations, or underlying autoimmune problems),”

and will continue to coordinate with the National Vaccine Advisory Committee on

public concerns regarding a possible vaccine/ASD link.”

The IACC has also concluded that existing population-based vaccine-autism studies are

limited in their ability to detect small susceptible subpopulations.”

National Institutes of Health Early Autism Risk Longitudinal Investigation

A network of NIH agencies and affiliated sites are following some 1,200 pregnant women who already have a child with autism to identify the earliest potential causes and

“possible environmental risk factors and their interplay with genetic susceptibility during the prenatal, neonatal and early postnatal periods.”

Researchers are reviewing each child’s medical records, including vaccination history. They are also asking about mercury exposures through flu shots during pregnancy, ambient air pollution, seafood consumption, dental amalgams, and thimerosal exposure through contact lens solutions and other OTC products.

US Dept of Health and Human Services National Vaccine Advisory Committee

The nation’s leading experts on vaccine safey recently endorsed the study of adverse events following immunization (e.g., fever and seizures) to see if they increase autism risk. The NVAC also supports an expert committee to consider examining outcomes in unvaccinated, vaccine delayed and vaccinated children, including autism. The Committee recommends more study of

“the possible occurrence of ASD in a small number of children subsequent to MMR vaccination” especially given “recent research around the incidence of mitochondrial dysfunction in children with an ASD phenotype.”

The NVAC also recommends studying adverse vaccine reactions in subsets of ASD children:

given “recent developments around mitochondrial dysfunction,” and because some children “may be at elevated risk of reduced neurological functioning, possibly including developing ASD, subsequent to vaccination.”

US Dept of Health and Human Services Vaccine Injury Compensation Program

The so-called Federal “Vaccine Court” has asked an Institute of Medicine committee to consider adverse events from the DTaP and MMR vaccines, including autism and autism spectrum disorders. The IOM committee will will consider vaccine-associated “secondary” autism or autistic features arising from chronic encephalopathy, mitochondrial disorders and/or other underlying disorders. The vaccine injury program has asked the committee to consider “primary autism” in light of

recent theories of neuro-inflammation and hyper-arousal/over-excitation of the immune system via multiple simultaneous antigenic stimulation” (several vaccines at once).

SCIENTISTS CALL FOR MORE STUDIES

Today, more scientists and research institutions are supporting further inquiry into the role of environmental toxins in the onset of autism spectrum disorder. While many doubt that vaccines are responsible for the dramatic increase in autism incidence, they point to knowledge gaps concerning susceptible subgroups that may have been missed in large population studies of MMR vaccine, thimerosal and ASD.

In general, vaccines are not the culprit, (but) there may be a small subset of children who may be particularly vulnerable to vaccines if the child was ill, if the child had a precondition, like a mitochondrial defect. Vaccinations for those children actually may be the environmental factor that tipped them over the edge of autism.”–David Amaral, PhD, Director of Research, University of California, Davis M.I.N.D. Institute. PBS, April 2011

One question [is] whether there is a subgroup in the population that, on a genetic basis, is more susceptible to some vaccine characteristic or component than most of the population, and may develop an ASD in response to something about vaccination. The trigger could be some adverse or cross-reacting response to a vaccine component or a mitochondrial disorder increasing the adverse response to vaccine-associated fever.”–Duane Alexander, MD, former Director of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), current Senior Scientific Advisor to NIH’s Fogarty International Center. Interview, October 2009.

It remains scientifically plausible that the challenge to the immune system resulting from a vaccine (or other immunological challenges) could, in susceptible individuals, have adverse consequences for the developing brain. Evidence does not support the theory that vaccines are causing an autism epidemic. However, it is plausible that specific genetic or medical factors that are present in a small minority of individuals might lead to an adverse response to a vaccine and trigger the onset of autism symptoms.”–Geraldine Dawson, PhD, Chief Science Officer, Autism Speaks. July, 2009

It is important for autism researchers to study the children who have been most profoundly affected by their response to vaccines.” – Story Landis, PhD, Director of the National Institute of Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), former member, IACC. Statement, October 2009

If a child was immunized, got a fever, had other complications from the vaccines. And if you’re predisposed with the mitochondrial disorder, it can certainly set off some damage. Some of the symptoms can be symptoms that have characteristics of autism… I think we have to have an open mind about this.” – Julie Gerberding, MD, former Director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, current President of Merck Vaccines. CNN, March 2008

I think it’s possible that you could have a genetic subgroup. You also might have an immune subgroup. There are a variety of subgroups. But the problem with the (vaccine-autism) population studies is they don’t… they aren’t necessarily designed to have the statistical power to find subgroups like that if the subgroups are small.”– Martha Herbert, MD, PhD, Assistant Professor of Neurology at Harvard Medical School, Pediatric Neurologist at Massachusetts General Hospital. PBS, April 2011

We will continue to support authoritative research that addresses unanswered questions about whether certain subgroups of individuals with particular underlying medical or genetic conditions may be more vulnerable to adverse effects of vaccines. While large scale studies have not shown a link between vaccines and autism, there are lingering legitimate questions about the safety of vaccines that must be addressed.”
–Autism Speaks, Official Statement. February 2009

III) RECENT PAPERS AND FUTURE STUDY

Studies that refute an autism-vaccine association tend to get widespread coverage in the media, but studies suggesting that more research is needed tend to get overlooked. The following are just a few recently published papers, some from foreign journals. They are not presented here as evidence of an association between immunization and autism, but rather to demonstrate the types of investigations that researchers might pursue in the years to come.

Mitochondrial Impairment and Lead Found in Saudi Children with ASD – Vaccines May Trigger Metabolic Stress and Regression in Mild Impairment Cases

“Plasma fatty acids as diagnostic markers in autistic patients from Saudi Arabia”
Lipids in Health and Disease, 2011 Apr 21;10(1):62.

This small study found that “fatty acids are altered in the plasma of autistic patients,” and the differences were related to “oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and the high lead concentration previously reported in Saudi autistic patients.” Taken together with three related Saudi studies, the authors “confirmed the impairment of energy metabolism in Saudi autistic patients, which could be correlated to oxidative stress.” Vitamin E and glutathione were “remarkably lower” in ASD patients vs. controls. Saudi ASD children “are under oxidative stress due to GSH (glutathione) depletion,” the authors said. “This confirms that oxidative stress and defective mitochondrial energy production could represent the primary causative factor in the pathogenesis of autism.” And they added, “There may be an initial period of normal development and function before decompensation in association with metabolic stress or immune activation, such as fasting, illness or vaccination.”

Vaccine-Induced Fever Caused ASD Regression in Four Chidren with Mitochondrial Dysfunction

“Fever plus mitochondrial disease could be risk factors for autistic regression”
Journal of Child Neurology, 2010 Apr;25(4):429-34.

Researchers looked at 28 children with ASD and mitochondrial disease and found that 17 of them (60.7%) had gone through autistic regression, and 12 of the regressive cases happened following fever. Among the 12 children who regressed after fever, a third of them (4) had fever associated with vaccination, as was the case of Hannah Poling v. HHS.

Birth Dose of Hepatitis-B Vaccine Associated with Increased ASD Risk in Boys

“Hepatitis B vaccination of male neonates and autism diagnosis, NHIS 1997-2002″
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 2010;73(24):1665-77.

This cross-sectional study used weighted probability samples from National Health Interview Survey 1997-2002. It findings “suggest that U.S. male neonates vaccinated with the hepatitis B vaccine prior to 1999 had a threefold higher risk for parental report of autism diagnosis compared to boys not vaccinated as neonates.”

Thimerosal may contribute to infant neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism.

“Lasting neuropathological changes in rat brain after intermittent neonatal administration of thimerosal”
Folia Neuropathologica 2010;48(4):258-69.

This study found that “numerous neuropathological changes were observed in young adult rats treated postnatally with thimerosal,” and that “These findings document neurotoxic effects of thimerosal, at doses equivalent to those used in infant vaccines or higher, in developing rat brain, suggesting likely involvement of this mercurial in neurodevelopmental disorders.” The authors concluded that thimerosal is “possibly contributing to pediatric neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism.”

Risk of Neurotoxicity from Thimerosal is Plausible, at Least for Susceptible Infants

“Making sense of epidemiological studies of young children exposed to thimerosal in vaccines”
Clinica Chimica Acta, International Journal of Clinical Chemisty, 2010 Nov 11;411(21-22):1580-6

Although this review did not look autism, it compared eight epidemiological studies conducted in the US, UK and Italy on “neurological issues and thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCV)” and found the data were “insufficient to establish non-toxicity for infants and young children.” The review identified “ambiguity” in some of the studies, likely caused by confounding variables. “The risk of neurotoxicity due to low doses of thimerosal is plausible at least for susceptible infants,” the author concluded. “There is a need to address these issues in less developed countries still using TCV in pregnant mothers, newborns, and young children. Developing countries should intensify campaigns that include breastfeeding among efforts to help prime the central nervous system to tolerate exposure to neurotoxic substances, especially thimerosal.”

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